2024 Guide of PCOD and PCOS: Causes, Symptoms, Differences, IVF & PCOS, Food, and Treatment

According to a systematic review and meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of PCOS among Indian women from 2010 to 2021 is 11.34% while there are other sources like Lybrate, stating that that one in every five women in India suffers from PCOS, which is approximately 20%.

In studies conducted in Maharashtra, prevalence of PCOS was reported as 22.5 per cent.

PCOD and PCOS are often used interchangeably. They are actually conditions that affect women’s hormonal balance. PCOD, which stands for Polycystic Ovarian Disorder specifically affects the ovaries. These reproductive organs play a role in regulating the cycle by producing hormones like progesterone and estrogen. In addition to these hormones they also produce amounts of inhibin, relaxin and male hormones known as androgens. On the other hand PCOS stands for Polycystic Syndrome and it is considered a metabolic disorder.

In summary, while both PCOD and PCOS cause disturbances in women PCOD is primarily an imbalance of hormones within the ovaries whereas PCOS involves metabolic issues.

In addition, to causing changes this condition can lead to several related health issues such, as;

  • Diabetes
  • Infertility
  • Acne
  • Excessive hair growth

It’s important to be aware of these potential consequences and seek appropriate medical attention.

What is the PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease) Problem?

PCOD full form  – Polycystic Ovarian Disease

Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) is a condition that affects women during their age. It occurs when the ovaries produce a number of partially mature eggs, which eventually develop into cysts. As a result of these cysts the ovaries become enlarged. Produce amounts of male hormones (androgen) leading to various health issues such, as fertility problems, irregular periods, unwanted weight gain and other related concerns. It can be controlled by diet, exercise and lifestyle modifications.

What is the PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Disease) Problem?

PCOS full form  – Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder that impacts women during their years. It is marked by an irregularity, in hormone levels an overabundance of androgens ( sex hormones), in the body.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a factor leading to infertility, among women and those assigned female, at birth (AFAB). Additionally it can heighten the likelihood of health issues. If you desire to conceive or experience symptoms related to PCOS your healthcare provider can offer treatment options.

Symptoms and Causes

What are the indications/ Symptoms that someone may have a PCOD Problem or PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that many women experience, which can impact the functioning of their ovaries. The symptoms of PCOS can differ from person to person. May include:

Irregular periods:: These are common in women with PCOS. They might have infrequent or missed periods or their periods may last longer than usual.

Ovarian Cysts:  Women with PCOS often develop fluid filled sacs, known as cysts on the outer edge of their ovaries. These cysts house eggs that do not get released on a basis.

Excess Androgen: Excessive amounts of the hormone androgen can lead to an increase in body hair. This condition is known as hirsutism. In some cases it may also cause acne and male pattern baldness.

Weight Gain: Women who have Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) tend to have a likelihood of experiencing weight gain in the abdominal region.

Fertility Challenges: PCOS can affect fertility due to irregular ovulation or the absence of ovulation.

Metabolic & Health Issues: Women who have syndrome (PCOS) face a higher likelihood of developing various health issues, including type 2 diabetes, elevated cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease.

Acne or Oily Skin: Women who are coping with PCOS may experience instances of skin or acne.

What causes PCOS?

The specific reason behind the occurrence of syndrome (PCOS) remains uncertain although it is believed to be linked to irregular hormone levels and genetic factors. Certain elements that may contribute to the development of PCOS include:

Insulin resistance:

Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, enables cells to utilize sugar as the source of energy in your body. When cells develop resistance to insulin’s effects it results in increased blood sugar levels. Triggers a production of insulin. Elevated levels of insulin can lead to the overproduction of testosterone, by the ovaries, which disrupts follicle development and hinders ovulation.

Hormone Imbalance:

Many women who have PCOS often experience an imbalance characterized by levels of androgens (male hormones) and luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as decreased levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).

Genetics Factor:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a tendency to occur within families, which indicates that genetic factors might contribute to its development.

Environmental factors:

Recent studies using animal models indicate that certain instances of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) might be attributed to chemical modifications that take place during development.

It is worth mentioning that although these factors might play a role, in the development of PCOS we still don’t have an understanding of the cause of this condition.

Complications and challenges associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that can lead to complications. Lets take a look at some of the issues that can arise from PCOS.

Infertility: Difficulty in conceiving can be a challenge for women, with PCOS as it may lead to infrequent or completely absent ovulation making pregnancy more challenging.

Pregnancy complications: Women who have syndrome (PCOS) face a higher likelihood of experiencing conditions such as pregnancy related high blood pressure, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature labor, preterm birth and miscarriage.

Type 2 diabetes: Women who have syndrome (PCOS) face a higher likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes.

Cardiovascular disease: Women who have syndrome (PCOS) face a higher chance of developing cardiovascular disease.

Endometrial cancer: Women who have Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) face a likelihood of developing hyperplasia and endometrial cancer.

Sleep apnea: Women who have Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) face a likelihood of developing sleep apnea.

Mood disorders: Women who have syndrome (PCOS) have a higher chance of experiencing anxiety and depression.


What is the Difference between PCOD vs PCOS?

Are PCOD and PCOS considered the same? Many women often mix up these two terms using them interchangeably particularly when trying to understand the connection between PCOS, PCOD and pregnancy. However in reality these conditions are distinct from each other despite sharing similarities such as their association with the ovaries and hormonal imbalances.

Lets explore the dissimilarities, between PCOD and PCOS:

Terms Remarks
Definition PCOD is an abbreviation for Polycystic Ovarian Disorder whereas PCOS is short for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
Cause PCOD occurs due to an irregularity in hormone levels whereas PCOS is a condition related to metabolism. The development of PCOD is influenced by both imbalances and genetic factors while PCOS is primarily caused by the ovaries producing male sex hormones such as androgen leading to the formation of cysts in the follicles, within the ovaries.
Severity PCOS is more complex  than PCOD
Symptoms PCOD is characterized by bleeding whereas PCOS is associated with weight gain, infertility and hair loss.
Effects on pregnancy PCOS is linked to a chance of experiencing pregnancy related conditions such as hypertension during pregnancy, preeclampsia gestational diabetes mellitus, going into labor early, having a birth and having a miscarriage. Additionally PCOD can also impact fertility. Have an effect on pregnancy.

It is crucial to understand that PCOD and PCOS are both associated with the ovaries and can lead to imbalances. However it is important to note that they are distinct from each other. If you have any concerns about having either of these conditions it would be advisable to seek advice, for a diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Diagnosis & Tests

PCOS Diagnosis

There isn’t a test that can specifically diagnose PCOS. However when you visit a healthcare professional they will likely begin by discussing your symptoms, medications and any other medical conditions you may have. They may also inquire about your cycles and any fluctuations in your weight. During an examination the healthcare provider will look for indications of hair growth, insulin resistance and acne.

Based on the information gathered during the evaluation your healthcare provider might suggest:

Pelvic Exam:

During an examination your healthcare provider has the ability to examine your organs for any signs of masses, growths or other potential alterations.

Blood Tests:
Blood tests can measure hormone levels, including testosterone, which tends to be higher in women with PCOS. This testing can exclude possible causes of menstrual problems or androgen excess that mimic PCOS. You might have other blood testing, such as fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels. A glucose tolerance test can measure your body’s response to sugar (glucose).


An ultrasound is a procedure that can assess the characteristics of your ovaries and measure the thickness of your uterus lining.

Lifestyle changes and natural treatments for PCOD / PCOS

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition caused by imbalances. There are ways to manage it through lifestyle adjustments and natural remedies. Here are some suggestions to help ease the symptoms of PCOS;

Take Healthy Diet:
Maintaining a nutritious diet is crucial. It can assist in regulating blood sugar levels and minimizing the chances of imbalances. In the context of PCOS diets it is important to focus on incorporating ingredients, whole grains and healthy fats. Including fiber foods, like fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grains can be especially advantageous, for your well being.

Weight Control:
Losing some weight has been shown to have effects on insulin and androgen levels potentially providing relief from PCOS symptoms. Even a small decrease in body weight can make a difference in managing the condition.

Daily Exercise:

Engaging in activity can have several benefits, for managing blood sugar levels, improving insulin sensitivity and addressing weight issues. It is advisable to aim for a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise every week.

Stress Management:
Stress has the potential to exacerbate the symptoms of PCOS. To better manage stress levels incorporating relaxation techniques, like yoga, meditation and deep breathing can be beneficial.

Take Supplements:

Certain dietary supplements, like omega 3 fatty acids, magnesium and vitamin D have the potential to provide relief from the symptoms associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

Avoid Smoking & Alcohol
It’s best to stay away from smoking and alcohol if you have PCOS as they can make the symptoms worse.

Try Herbal:
Certain herbs, like cinnamon, chamomile and flaxseeds have shown potential, in relieving the symptoms associated with PCOS.


What is the treatment for PCOD Problem / PCOS?

The ideal treatment for syndrome (PCOS) can differ from person to person based on their individual symptoms. However here are a few suggested treatment options:

Lifestyle changes
Making changes to your lifestyle can make a difference in managing PCOS. This involves keeping a weight by exercising and eating a balanced diet. Even losing 5% of your body weight can help improve the symptoms of PCOS.

Various medications can be prescribed to address symptoms of PCOS. Some prescribed medications include:

Birth control pills: These are often used to regulate cycles and decrease androgen levels.

Anti androgen medications: These can help control excessive hair growth and acne.

Metformin: This medication is frequently utilized to enhance insulin sensitivity and regulate menstrual cycles.

Clomiphene citrate: This medication aids in inducing ovulation, for women who are trying to conceive.

Fertility or IVF treatments:
If women are trying to get pregnant doctors might suggest fertility or IVF treatments, like assisted technology (ART). These treatments can assist in triggering ovulation. Improve the likelihood of getting pregnant.

Sometimes doctors may suggest surgery as a treatment option, for addressing symptoms of PCOS. One such surgical procedure is drilling, which aims to restore ovulation in women who have not seen results, from other treatment methods.

Natural remedies:
Although scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of remedies for PCOS is limited, some women have reported finding relief through lifestyle adjustments and incorporating certain supplements into their routine. These adjustments may involve making changes, such as consuming a diet that includes whole foods, managing stress levels effectively and considering the use of supplements, like omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin D.

It’s worth mentioning that when it comes to treating PCOS it’s crucial to take an approach that caters to each person’s requirements. It is advisable to seek advice from a healthcare professional who specializes in PCOS in order to establish the treatment strategy.

Effect On Fertility

Will IVF Work with PCOS?

IVF is an utilized procedure, for women who have ovary syndrome (PCOS) and are attempting to get pregnant. Here you can analyze a relationship between IVF & PCOS based on multiple factors:

Success rate:
IVF has proven to be very effective for women with PCOS who wish to get pregnant. The success rates of IVF in women with PCOS can reach as high as 70%. However it’s important to keep in mind that success rates may differ based on factors, like age, overall health and the quality of the fertility clinic.

Care during the Treatment:
The IVF procedure, for women diagnosed with PCOS may require certain factors to be taken into account. It is important to manage the ovulation stimulation process by using medications during IVF treatment for women, with PCOS. The choice of these medications should be customized based on each individual’s response.

Pregnancy risks:
Women with PCOS who undergo IVF may have a chance of experiencing pregnancy complications like hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). It’s crucial for healthcare professionals to carefully observe and address these risks throughout the pregnancy.

Multiple pregnancy risks:

PCOS affected women who choose to undergo IVF treatment may face an increased likelihood of having multiple pregnancies. However thanks, to advancements in IVF techniques, like blastocyst embryo transfer, the rates of births can now be better managed without compromising the success rates of achieving pregnancy.

In general, in vitro fertilization (IVF) can be a treatment choice for women who have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and are facing difficulties in getting pregnant. It is crucial to seek advice from a fertility specialist or reproductive endocrinologist to talk about situations, available treatments and potential risks connected with IVF.


PCOD Diet: How does diet affect PCOD / PCOS?

The way you eat can greatly influence PCOD (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) and the symptoms associated with it. Let’s explore the impact of diet, on PCOD:

In individuals, with PCOD there is often an indication of inflammation throughout the body, which has been linked to conditions like heart disease and other illnesses. One way to tackle this inflammation is by following a diet that focuses on reducing inflammation, such, as the Mediterranean diet.

Insulin Resistance:
Insulin resistance is an occurrence in people with PCOD. It can pose challenges when trying to shed pounds. Consuming a diet in carbohydrates, such as starchy and sugary foods can exacerbate insulin resistance. Conversely incorporating high fiber vegetables, lean protein and anti inflammatory foods into your diet can assist in combating insulin resistance.

Weight Management:
It is important for individuals with PCOD to effectively manage their weight as having weight can potentially aggravate the symptoms. To mitigate the risk of PCOD or alleviate its symptoms it is advisable to incorporate fats, lean proteins, whole grains and a generous amount of fruits and vegetables, into your diet.

Hormonal Balance:
Incorporating spices, like turmeric and cinnamon into your diet can be beneficial for individuals, with PCOD as they may help regulate insulin production and resistance, maintain blood sugar levels and reduce oxidative stress.

PCOD/ PCOS Diet | What Foods to Eat and Avoid ?

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) can be effectively managed by making adjustments. Here are some recommended food choices and foods to limit or avoid:

Here are some recommended foods to include in your diet;

  • Fish that are rich in Omega fatty acids, such as salmon, tuna, sardines and mackerel.
  • Leafy greens like kale, spinach and broccoli.
  • Dark colored fruits like grapes, blueberries, blackberries and cherries.
  • Healthy fats from sources like olive oil, avocados, coconuts and various nuts such as pine nuts, walnuts, almonds and pistachios.
  • Spices like turmeric and cinnamon can be beneficial to add flavor to your meals.
  • High fiber foods, like beans, lentils, almonds, berries, sweet potatoes, winter squash, and pumpkin are also great options.

These food choices can contribute to a diet.

Foods you should try to avoid:

  • Stay from carbohydrates, like cakes, pastries and white bread.
  • Skip food and fast food options such as pizza and burgers.
  • Be cautious of carbonated beverages like sodas and energy drinks since they tend to be high in sugar.
  • Processed meats like salami, sausages, hot dogs, cured ham and bacon should be consumed sparingly. The same goes for luncheon meat.
  • Be mindful of margarine, shortening and lard in your diet.
  • Limit your intake of meat such as steaks, pork and hamburgers.
  • Try to minimize the consumption of processed foods like cakes, candy, cookies and other sweets.
  • Opt for cereals that are not overly sweetened.
  • Choose yogurts without added sugar whenever
  • Enjoy ice cream, in moderation while being mindful of sugar content.Please keep in mind that everyone’s dietary requirements may differ. It is advisable to seek advice and guidance, from a healthcare professional or registered dietitian when it comes to managing PCOD through diet.


PCOD / PCOS Frequently Asked Questions:

Can women get pregnant when she has pcod / pcos?

Yes it is indeed possible for women diagnosed with PCOD to conceive. In fact PCOD can be addressed as a cause of infertility and many women with PCOD can achieve pregnancy through lifestyle modifications or fertility treatments. It’s worth noting that women with PCOD may face a likelihood of experiencing certain pregnancy complications such as high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, premature birth and delivering larger than expected babies based on their gestational age. There may also be an increased risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. However with monitoring and effective symptom management the majority of women with PCOD can successfully give birth to babies. Various treatment options exist for infertility in women diagnosed with PCOD including medications to stimulate ovulation in vitro fertilization (IVF) and lifestyle adjustments. It is crucial for women with PCOD who are attempting to conceive to collaborate with their healthcare provider in order to effectively manage symptoms and minimize the risk of complications during pregnancy.

Can females have pcod problem after marriage?

PCOD (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) can manifest in women following marriage. Although the precise cause of PCOD remains incompletely comprehended, various aspects associated with life and lifestyle adjustments may contribute to the emergence or exacerbation of PCOD symptoms. There are explanations as to why PCOD might arise or become more apparent after entering into matrimony.

Marriage can bring about changes in one’s lifestyle, responsibilities and expectations which may result in heightened stress levels. This stress has the potential to disrupt balance and potentially exacerbate or trigger PCOD symptoms.

Weight Gain:
After getting married people often experience changes in their diet and lifestyle. These changes can include a decrease in activity. Adopting unhealthy eating habits, which can result in weight gain. It’s important to note that excess weight is frequently linked to PCOD (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) and can worsen its symptoms.

Irregular Periods:
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition where menstrual cycles become irregular. The stress and hormonal fluctuations that come with marriage can disturb the equilibrium resulting in irregular periods or exacerbation of pre-existing irregularities.

It is worth mentioning that PCOD can affect women regardless of whether they’re married or not. However the stress and changes in lifestyle that come with marriage might potentially have an impact on the development or worsening of PCOD symptoms. If a woman experiences periods or other symptoms related to PCOD after getting married it is recommended to seek advice from a gynecologist for diagnosis, suitable treatment and guidance on how to manage PCOD through adjustments, in lifestyle, diet and medication if needed.

How to cure pcos permanently?

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a long term condition. Unfortunately there isn’t a known solution for it. Nevertheless there are ways to effectively handle the symptoms of PCOS and enhance one’s well being. Below you’ll find some tips based on evidence, on how to manage PCOS:

Making lifestyle changes is important for managing the symptoms of PCOS. This involves incorporating exercise, maintaining a diet, practicing stress management techniques and ensuring adequate sleep.

If you’re looking to improve PCOS symptoms shedding some kilos can be beneficial in terms of addressing insulin resistance. Adopting an eating plan and engaging in physical activity can go a long way in achieving weight loss goals.

Certain medications like birth control pills, metformin and anti androgen medications can be prescribed to help manage PCOS symptoms

While there are some remedies such as herbal supplements and acupuncture that may provide relief from certain PCOS symptoms it’s important to note that more research is needed to establish their effectiveness conclusively.

In instances where other treatments have not been surgical interventions, like ovarian drilling or removal of ovarian cysts may be recommended for managing PCOS symptoms.

It is essential to understand that the effectiveness of strategies for managing PCOS can differ from individual to individual and it may be necessary to use a combination of approaches. Additionally working closely with a healthcare professional is crucial in order to effectively manage PCOS symptoms and minimize the potential for complications.

What to expect from a doctor when going for an appointment regarding PCOS / PCOD Consultation?

When you have a consultation, for PCOS here’s what you can anticipate from a doctor:

In terms of your background and symptoms evaluation:
The doctor will inquire about your medical records, including any past diagnoses, treatments and medications. They will also ask about any symptoms you may have experienced related to PCOS, such, as cycles, excessive hair growth, acne breakouts, weight changes and fertility concerns.

Regarding the examination:
The doctor might conduct a physical examination that could involve checking your blood pressure, weight measurement and body mass index (BMI). Additionally they may perform an exam to assess the condition of your organs.

For purposes:
As there is no definitive test for diagnosing PCOS the doctor may recommend a series of tests to confirm the condition. Blood tests can be conducted to measure hormone levels along with assessing blood sugar and cholesterol levels.Furthermore an ultrasound imaging test can be performed to check for cysts or tumors while examining the lining of the uterus.

Discussion and treatment plan:
Based on your medical history information symptoms reported by you and results from the tests conducted. The doctor will engage in a discussion with you regarding the diagnosis of PCOS and its potential implications. They will also provide information on treatment options which might include lifestyle adjustments, medication prescriptions as well as fertility treatments if deemed necessary.The doctor will customize the treatment plan based on your needs, goals and expectations.

They will also emphasize the significance of monitoring and follow up appointments to track your progress and make any adjustments to the treatment plan.

Additionally they may offer guidance on managing PCOS symptoms through weight management, exercise and dietary changes.

Remember to have communication with your doctor, ask any questions you have and discuss any concerns or expectations you may have, about your PCOS diagnosis and treatment.

A note from Conceive India IVF

PCOS is an encountered condition that impacts your cycle and gives rise to various symptoms. If you suspect that you might have PCOS it’s advisable to discuss your symptoms with your healthcare provider. Making lifestyle adjustments and seeking treatments can assist in managing the symptoms, reducing the likelihood of developing health issues and increasing the chances of achieving pregnancy if that’s your desired outcome.